On October 20, China announced new export restrictions on graphite, a crucial material in electric vehicle batteries, in response to US limitations on tech-related sales to Chinese companies. China, a major player in global mineral supply chains, will mandate export permits for three types of graphite due to “national security” reasons, starting December 1, 2023, as stated by China’s Commerce Ministry and the General Administration of Customs. These new controls are expected to heighten geopolitical tensions between the two economic giants, along with their allies. China was the world’s leading graphite producer last year, accounting for an estimated 65% of global production, according to the US Geological Survey. [Icsmart, in Chinese]